Our studio
Potters/painters Shelagh Hill & David Hill (David’s nom de plume "Roderic David")
Email: pppp@firethorne.com

Our studio on Bowen Island has a view of mountains, sea and forest. Our local environment provides an important part of the inspiration for our painting, especially those created by Shelagh.

We have two high fire kilns, both old, both electric. However the larger of the two kilns has been treated so that propane gas may be introduced during the firing to provide reduction effects, so we can fire in oxidation or reduction at Cone 6 or Cone 10. All of our Cone 10 ware shown below is fired in reduction.


Paintings & an occasional photograph

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“Fall Flight, Bluewater”
Photograph



“Collingwood channel”
Acrylic on hardboard


Preliminary sketch en plein air:
“Pilot Mountain” view looking
down Bow River Valley
Oil on hardboard

“Transitions I”
Acrylic on canvas



“West Coast Fusion”
Acrylic on canvas


“Desolation Sound”
Acrylic on hardboard

“Breakthrough”
Oil on canvas


“Autobiographical abstract”
Oil on aluminium


“Sea pinks”
Acrylic on canvas


“Study on magnolia”
Acrylic on paper

“Deck flowers with studio behind”
Photograph

Pottery
(Note: All Cone 10 pots are reduction-fired. The remainder are oxidation-fired)

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“Ceramic sun”
Bisqued only

“Bowl”
Tenmoku,
Cone 10

“Quart teapot”
Clear
Cone 10

“Small coffee cup”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“Green Man”
Celadon
Cone 10

“8.75-inch casserole”
Blue Avocado,
Cone 10

“Pint teapot”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“Tea cup”
Anita’s Blue
Cone 6

“Moon”
Bisqued only

“Primitive contentment”
Tenmoku
Cone 10

“Pint jug”
(Forgotten) + glossy white
Cone 6

“One US-pint jug”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“Bottle-top vase”
Variegated Blue
Cone 6

“5-inch soup bowl”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“Six-inch bowl”
Emerald green
Cone 6

“Semi-bottle-top vase”
Metallic black
Cone 6

“Dome-top 5.3-inch bowl”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

6.5-inch side plate”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“9.5-inch dinner plate”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“Lidded sugar bowl”
Variegated blue
Cone 6

“Wind”
Kathryn Manrup Rutile Blue [sic]
Cone 10

8-inch dessert plate”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“4.25-inch bowl”
Teal
Cone 6

“5.5-inch chili bowl”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“Lidded sugar bowl”
Oatmeal
Cone 6

“6.25-inch bowl”
Emerald Green
Cone 6

“4.5-inch rice bowl”
Anita’s Blue
Cone 6

“10-inch fruit bowl”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“3.5-inch sushi dish”
Anita’s Blue
Cone 6

“5.5-inch plant pot stand”
Glossy White
Cone 6

“5.25-inch bowl”
Glossy White
Cone 6

“4.75-inch soup bowl”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“6.5-inch cereal bowl”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“4-inch vase”
Ed’s Red [sic]
Cone 10

“7-inch casserole”
Speckled Tan
Cone 6

“3-inch bottle-top vase”
Variegated Blue
Cone 6

“Pint teapot”
Rosie’s Red
Cone 6

“3.5-inch milk jug”
Rosie’s Red
Cone 6

“3-inch lidded sugar bowl”
Rosie’s Red
Cone 6

“0.75 pint teapot”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“4.5-inch bowl”
Shelagh’s Blue
Cone 6

“Small plant-pot holder”
Reimer’s Clear
Cone 6

“4.5-inch lidded bowl”
Reimer’s Clear
Cone 6

“5.75-inch shallow bowl”
Tan
Cone 10

“Tea or coffee cup”
Variegated Blue
Cone 6

“7.75-inch dessert or fruit bowl”
Variegated blue
Cone 6

“Mug, 4.25 inches tall”
Clear
Cone 10

“4.5 x 3-inch covered bon-bon dish”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“4 x 3.5 inch vase”
Variegated Blue
Cone 6

“3.5 x 3.5 inch bottle-top vase”
Tan
Cone 6

“3.5 x 3.5 inch vase”
Tan
Cone 10

“4.5-inch bowl”
Variegated Blue
Cone 6

“Pint jug 2”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“5-inch soup bowl”
Rosie’s Red
Cone 6

“3 x 2.5 inch bottle top vase”
Variegated Blue
Cone 6

“4.5-inch soup bowl”
Tenmoku
Cone 10

“4.25 x 4.5 inch vase”
Blue Avocado
Cone 6

“Sugar bowl”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“6.5-inch cereal bowl”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

“9.5-inch fruit bowl”
Tan
Cone 10

“4.75 x 2.75 inch bowl”
Variegated Blue
Cone 6

“Funky toast rack”
Blue Avocado
Cone 10

Various notes

How I prepared our large electric kiln for reduction firing
David Hill

The following segment explains how we prepared our larger electric kiln (a 6.7 cubic feet ESTRIN with 8 paired rows of elements originally controlled by four switches and a kiln sitter—but see below) to allow it to be used for reduction firing. If you copy my method, or parts of it, I do not take responsibility for your results. There are other ways of providing a reducing atmosphere for some or all the wares in an electric kiln, including placing them in “saggars”, which are ceramic containers with lids into which glazed bisqued ware can be placed for glaze firing, along with combustible material that burns at elevated temperature to provide the fuel to remove the oxygen and provide the reducing atmosphere.

When we obtained the old, used kiln, the lid was smashed because the courier failed to secure it for the journey, and the ensuing hammering broke up the fragile insulating fire bricks. Also one of the element pairs was seriously damaged by over-extension, pulled out of its groove. I decided to replace all the elements and rebuild the lid. If you intend to carry out this work yourself, you should be sure that you have the ability and qualifications, especially dealing with the electrical items. I am simply telling you what I did, and do not recommend that you do such work unless you know what you are doing and accept any risks involved.

Rebuilding the lid was complicated by deterioration of the steel cover and a lack of bracing, solved by replacing the cover (thanks to Peter Ryan for fabricating the cover to specification) and providing two stout steel threaded rods to traverse the standard insulating fire bricks (4.5 × 9 × 2.5 inches) and brace the whole lid. Cutting the fire bricks was very easy—they are very soft, though accuracy was essential. Almost anything will cut them (I used a modelling saw). The biggest problem was drilling a hole, accurately enough for proper brick alignment, through all the bricks, from side to side, for the two bracing rods. No fireclay was used between the insulating brisk, but nice gas-tight joints resulted. A one inch vent hole was drilled in the steel cover, with a matching hole through the bricks. I put a layer of “Kaowool” between the new bricks and the steel cover.

New elements were obtained from Mark Lawrence (marklawrence@shaw.ca), who was the lead hand for ESTRIN for 24 years (he supplies elements for many makes of kiln). I bought two sets, plus a spare set for out smaller Coast Ceramics kiln.

I had already determined that the elements could be protected against the reducing atmosphere during a reduction firing by using ITC ceramic coatings, as a result of reading Nils Lou's book: “The Art of Firing” and I obtained confirmation and additional details by corresponding with Nils (nlou@linfield.edu, and web site: http://www.linfield.edu/art/faculty-detail.html?id=82) and experimenting.

Nils is Professor of Ceramics and Sculpture at Linfield College in Oregon and is most amiable. A summary of the steps required, based on Nils comments and help, plus my own experience and experiments follows:

  1. Obtain small buckets of ITC 100 HT and ITC 213 from International Technical Ceramics, Inc, (60 San Juan Drive, PO Box 1726, Ponte Vedra, Florida 32082, 904-285-0200). I bought 15 pound buckets (the smallest, but way too much) from the Seattle Pottery Supply (35 South Hanford, Seattle, Washington 98134, 206-587-0570). That is also where I obtained the “Kaowool” for the lid, to go between the steel cover and the fire bricks.
  2. Obtain new elements and clean them thoroughly with 99% isopropyl, using a fairly stiff 1.5 inch paint brush with natural bristles, to ensure all residues from the original drawing of the resistance wire are removed from all parts of the elements, including the leads. Repeat the process with a clean batch of isopropyl alcohol. Nils had originally suggested 10% Clorox bleach, but, for starters, it doesn't wet the elements properly, and also it doesn't really attack the oily residue from the drawing process. Very clean elements are essential;
  3. Thin the ITC 213 one part of ITC 213 to two parts of clean water
  4. Place each element, in turn, in a large enough, strong clear plastic bag, with a sufficient quantity of ITC 213, and shake to cover the entire element and leads. Remove from the bag and hang up to drip dry, taking care not to remove any of the coating (handle by the extreme ends). I did this in my garage—it is a messy process and hanging up to dry tends to leave drips of brown liquid around. You need quite a bit of space, and need to prepare the drying area ahead of time with lines and strong clips. The coating should be complete but thin.
  5. Take photographs of the connections etc. before taking everything apart, for future reference, and be sure to keep all parts that are usable for replacement.
  6. Remove the old elements from the kiln. They are normally held in place by long ‘U’-shaped clips of element wire pushed into the insulating fire bricks. I had a small supply of new element wire so that I could make new clips. This is a good time to inspect the kiln and wiring, clean up electrical joint-making connectors, replace the control switches, and so on.
  7. When the elements are thoroughly dry, insert them into their grooves and clip them in place, having threaded the connection leads through the holes into the junction box. It is very easy to push the long-legged ‘U’-shaped clips into the soft insulating bricks that form the kiln wall, but don't break the bricks by sideways loads. Some careful bending of leads will likely be necessary at the exit, and care should be taken to avoid scratching off the ceramic coating.
  8. With the elements in place, and all connections remade, vacuum out the kiln thoroughly. Thin some of the ITC 100 HT—2 parts of ITC 100 HT to 1 part of water, to produce a couple of pints of material as needed to spray the entire inside of the kiln and the elements. You'll need some means of spraying a fairly heavy suspension of ceramic material in water (what you've just mixed!) in a thin coat that completely covers the inside, including the lid. You will need to pay careful attention to the elements in their recessed slots. I used a &$8220;Critter Spray Products” 22032 118G Siphon Gun (http://www.amazon.com/home-improvement/dp/B00006FRPJ) powered by a compressor that I already had, but it did not seem entirely suitable as it was difficult to stop it from clogging, even when shaking it all the time. A simpler means of spraying might have been better. Some experiment is called for—I'll update this if I find a better solution. I do have a professional paint spray gun, but it would definitely not have been suitable. Allegedly, the ITC 100 HT not only completes the protection of the elements against the reducing atmosphere (which otherwise removes the protective oxide coating that naturally forms on the elements in oxidation firing), but also makes the kiln thermally more efficient, but this seems unproven (http://www.potters.org/subject04456.htm/).
  9. Leave it all to dry for a few days, with the kiln propped open, when the weather is warm, and then raise the temperature to 300 degrees Fahrenheit, or so, with the lid propped slightly open.
  10. Obtain an alumina thermocouple protector similar to the one shown here and cut the end off. (I started with a metal tube and as documented later, this caused problems) Here is a photograph of what you really need:

    Click to enlarge in a new window

    The pyrometric protective sheath shown was purchased from “Greenbarn Potters Supply Ltd” in Surrey, BC (http://www.greenbarn.com/). The overall length is 12 inches.As originally supplied it was closed at the end opposite to the metal fitting (it is supposed to protect a whatever is inside it, after all). The tube is 7/16 inches (11 mm) in outside diameter, with a 5/16 inch (8 mm) internal diameter. A range of similar sheaths appears in the Chavin-Arnoux catalogue (http://www.chauvin-arnoux.com/Groupe/pdf_mag/cmn17.pdf). One that looks identical is in the middle of the illustration on page 18)

    It broke off when I tried cutting it off with a grinder; fortunately the effect was close to what I was aiming at anyway—it is probably better to get it professionally cut. The threaded end is a standard pipe fitting that fits the female thread from an adapter attached to the outlet from a propane gas regulator, shown here together with a 25 pound propane tank. The needle valve is also necessary, and, again, was added after early experience. So you will also need a propane bottle (20lb) a regulator, a needle valve, and an adaptor between the needle vale and the pyrometric sheath, such as shown here:

    Propane gas injection


    Gas regulator and needle valve
    with adapter for the alumina tube

    Propane tank for the gas supply

    That is it for what you need, apart from standard pottery supplies. The rest of the account becomes more of a narrative.

I originally drilled a 15/32 inch diameter hole through the metal casing and insulating fire brick, slightly above the actual floor of the kiln, slightly inside the kiln, towards the back and on the side opposite to the kiln's existing thermocouple, as noted. This allowed the gas injection tube to be inserted easily without allowing significant air to enter. Note: If you use a metal or glass tube, it will may start to melt during firing which is what happened to me on my first reduction firing. The alumina can withstand the high temperatures. Moreover, I based on my experience, I recommend drilling the hole in the centre of the chosen side, as follows.

The ware is not stacked on the floor of the kiln when firing, but on a shelf supported a little above the floor. In order to prevent the gas flame from playing directly on the elements, you should arranged a pattern of supports to provide a "maze" through which the gas flame and any unburnt gas is dispersed into the kiln volume. The following photographs illustrate the arrangements:


Inside the large kiln
with lower shelves in place

Lower shelves removed to reveal
the flame/gas diffusion control

Propane injection
assembled & inserted

View of the alumina tube
insertion in the kiln

The bolt lying on the slab that supports the kiln, in the third photograph, is pushed into the injection hole when the kiln is not being fired to keep the spiders out. It is rusty, which is why the alumina tube has changed colour in the fourth photograph, due to the rust. Note that the alumina tube enters below the bottom shelves, in line with the gap as shown in the fourth photograph. The three stilts on their side are a quarter inch lower than the small stilts supporting the bottom shelves, which helps the flame and gas to spread fairly uniformly without playing on the elements.

The gas should not be turned on until the kiln temperature has reached 1400 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature it will ignite inside the kiln without having to light it. However, I turn it on and light it anyway so that I have an idea of the gas flow before insertion, and there's no chance of an unburnt gas/air mixture forming. The amount of gas injected determines the degree of reduction and is most easily controlled by starting with a six inch flame from the alumina tube, inserting the tube, and then adjusting the amount of gas using the needle valve so that there is a six to twelve inch flame burning at the top kiln vent as it enters the outside atmosphere. The flow of gas should be maintained past maturity, probably until the temperature approaches 1400 degrees Fahrenheit from above. I have some more experimenting to do to check out any possible effects, but it seems to me that if the gas flow is cut off at maturity, oxygen will replace the fuel, and some re-oxidation of the molten glaze materials is possible.

As noted, I originally injected the gas down the side of the kiln (the one at at the top of the pictures shown), near the elements. In the second firing, when I had introduced the alumina pyrometric sheath, but no needle valve, the result was two melted elements at the bottom of the kiln, partly due to the nearness of the flame to the elements, and partly due to the lack of control of the gas which was able to flow freely through the unobstructed tube (the previous metal tube partially melted, if you remember, and somewhat restricted the hard-to-control flow directly from the tank). I had to replace the two melted elements. I also had to clean away the spattered metal from the melted elements which could have caused further problems.


Melted elements (marked)
Note the metal spattering

Pyrometric cones to check the firing:
1. Cone support 2. Cones loaded
3. After firing 4.New cones still joined

A thermocouple and special lead wire

However, the new arrangement works very well and I have had no further problems, especially as I use a wall-mounted Skutt “KilnMaster” electronic kiln controller to control firings. This takes pretty well all of the guesswork out of the process. The set up is such that I can plug either the large kiln or the small kiln into the controller, as I have provided suitable plugs and receptacles, and the controller either sits in my garage and controls the smaller kiln, or is hung in the open-sided shed outside that houses the larger kiln. For this purpose, I ran an underground armoured cable of suitable capacity to the shed. It is essentially a heavy duty extension cord that can handle more than the 34 amps 240 volts drawn by the larger kiln, and it plugs into the receptacle in the garage that is used for the small kiln (so you can only run one at a time, an important safeguard). I use same thermocouple for both kilns, so it is permanently attached to the controller which uses the temperature sensing to manage its control function. It is like a bridal party when we move the controller, with the connections providing the train, and the controller the all-important bride!

The control switches on the kiln are set to maximum, and, if there's a kiln-sitter, it is set to the maximum time so it doesn't interfere, and the “KilnMaster” takes care of everything. However, I do place a set of pyrometric cones in the kiln for glaze firing, and keep an eye on what they are doing as the firing approaches the final temperature and hold time (if any). So far the “KilnMaster” has done its job impeccably, with the lowest temperature cone bending completely, the firing cone bending down and the guard cone staying up. The “KilnMaster” bases its control on the heat work, which is more than just temperature, which is exactly what the cones are supposed to do. Firing is no longer seen as a black art, but we have made a set of kiln gods,just in case. The real challenge is really the glazes. How they are formulated and how do they react to firing, either in oxidation or reduction. I am still experimenting.

There’s a very good video concerning reduction firing in an electric kiln that I have come across since I originally uploaded this site on June 26th 2013, produced by Nick Friedman who runs the Duckpond pottery, at Brevard, in North Carolina. His experience confirms my own, except he seems to inject a great deal more gas that I do, using two vertical bunsen burners burning into two holes in the bottom of the kiln. He goes through a complete firing cycle, after discussing his set-up, and shows the results, which are very attractive. His end comments are also worth listening to.

The video runs for just over 13 minutes and is the fourth item in the thread on the web site linked above.

Our studio glazes

Glazing is still, not without some justification, considered to be a black art. The results can be unexpected, and an appeal to the kiln gods may be the only solution. For a more scientific approach you may consider the thickness of the glaze, the exact placement of the ware in the kiln, as well as the control of gas if firing in reduction, perhaps along with the direction of the wind and the phase of the moon. :-)

The following two figures illustrate the significant difference between firing in oxidation and firing in reduction. There are two very similar plates, using the same clay (Plainsman H440), and the same Blue Avocado glaze, both double dipped, and both fired to Cone 10:


Blue Avocado plate fired in oxidation

Blue Avocado plate fired in reduction

Some of the difference could be due to thicker glaze and less gas, some due to placement high or low in the kiln, but that is by no means the whole story. Notice that the plate fired in reduction is showing the spotting of the glaze due to the effect of reduction on the iron on the clay body.

We mix our own glazes and most are very successful though we have had one or two failures, in terms of the expected colour. Mixing glazes requires precautions to avoid inhaling the dry chemicals and earth products used, so a high-quality dust mask is required, and goggles to protect the eyes. I always do the initial mixing of dry ingredients into water outside. You'll need an accurate balance and some 5 gallon pails with lids (obtainable from places like “Home Depot”. The Ohaus triple beam balance seems to be standard and works well, weighing quantities up to nearly 3 kilograms. I actually split the amounts if there is a requirement for a lot of any particular ingredient. It is easier, and avoids the need for large containers balanced on the scale, even if the scale can take it. I mark containers with their empty weight and take that into account during weighing. The mix is best done in a second container to start with, and then transferred to its labelled container as part of the process of sieving.


An Ohaus triple beam balance
accurate to fractions of a gram

Weights to increase the Ohaus range
up to nearly three kilograms

Marked container

Goggles: clear and for kiln
viewing plus a good quality
dust mask

A “Talisman” rotary sieve

Glaze ingredients

Eleven Cone 6 glazes ready to use

More glaze materials,
plus 7 Cone 10 glazes

A “Talisman” rotary sieve is a wonderful tool for sieving the mixed glaze into its final container, after it has been well stirred during mixing. The brushes encourage the mixture to pass through the sieve, which eliminates any lumps and other problems and helps the final homogenisation of the glaze, which is basically a suspension of fine solids in water. The sieve mesh itself can be removed and cleaned separately. Cleanliness is next to Godliness in mixing glazes, and accuracy is vital—especially when adding the few grams of oxides that provide much of the colouring and other effects.

The other photographs above show our Cone 6 and Cone 10 glazes, as well as some additional glaze ingredients.

When the glazes have been mixed and sieved, they are ready for use, but should be stirred frequently to combat the settling that will otherwise take place. There are good videos on the web that give ideas about methods for applying the glazes. Suffice it to say here that we favour using tongs to dip the ware into the glaze after it has been bisque fired (to Cone 06, which is around 1816 degrees Fahrenheit to make it porous/ The thickness of the resulting coat of glaze material will depend partly on the porosity of the bisqued ware, which decreases with increased firing temperature, partly on the amount of water in the glaze mixed (which can be monitored using a hydrometer, which measures the “Specific Gravity” or “SG” of the mix, and partly on how long the ware is dipped in the glaze. We find that somewhere of the order of five seconds is enough time for a typical glaze of the right consistency. The specific gravity is another of these somewhat black-magic measurements when dealing with glazes, simply because they tend to be thick and filled with fine solids. From 1.3 to 1.5 is a typical range of different glazes (water is 1.0), and the best use of the SG measure is probably to note what it is when the target glaze is producing the results you want. You can also weight a known quantity of glaze and calculate the SG as the weight of 1 cubic centimetre of the glaze (weight exactly 500 ccs and divide the weight by 500).

Some experience firing to Cone 10 in reduction

Our initial test of our Cone 10 (2381°F) reduction firing, using a Plainsman H440 clay, was reasonably successful, except that two of our newly mixed glazes did not perform as expected. After a bisque firing to Cone 06 (1816°F), we glazed 39 pots of various shapes, including two “faces” intended for hanging outside the studio door. We already had two other faces (a “sun” and a “Moon” resulting from our original pottery classes in Calgary, hanging outside out front door. The classes we attended at Windsor Park school have, sadly, been discontinued. The following photographs show the pots after applying the glaze, the kiln towards the end of firing as it approached maturity, and the resulting finished pots and faces. Notice the although the kiln is electric, there is a flame coming out of the top vent and you can just see the propane tank injecting the gas at the left side. Both peep-holes are plugged. The cone support that was placed opposite the top peep-hole is in the middle of the finished pots.

The pots are grouped in the photograph of the finished pots (the fourth, immediately below). Starting at the top left corner of the table, and working clockwise, the glazes—all Cone 10— are Tan, Ed's Red, Celadon, Katherine Manrup's Rutile Blue, Tenmoku, and Clear, with Blue Avocado occupying the centre—a total of seven Cone 10 glazes. Neither Ed's Red, nor K.M.'s Rutile Blue produced anything approaching what we expected (the joys of picking glazes out of our recipe book, though it was from Windsor Park). We knew the Blue Avocado from earlier experience—it is one of our favourites, and was the one we used when we made our dinner service. It seems very reliable. Tenmoku and Clear are reliable glazes, and the Tan produced a pleasing result.

The metal tube that I used to introduce the propane gas into the kiln had a chunk of porous carbon attached at the end, after firing, and a small section of the pipe had melted or become brittle so that the tube was partly block and two or three inches at the end had became detached. This probably decreased the amount of reduction we achieved.


Glazed pots ready for Cone 10 firing

More glazed pots ready for Cone 10 firing

Kiln approaching-maturity: note the exit flame

The finished pots, various glazes fired in reduction to Cone 10

The next Cone 10 reduction firing was less than perfect, as my arrangements for the gas injection turned out to have problems as already noted. I had neglected to include a needle valve and controlling the quantity of gas using the valve on the cylinder was very hit and miss. Also, at that stage, the injection hole was along the back side of the kiln, and the inadequate, prone-to-disintegrate metal pipe had been replaced by the free-flowing alumina pipe. To cut a long story short, the flame melted the lower pair of elements and it was with difficulty that I finished the firing. Instead of a 12 hour firing it stretched out to nearly 14 hours and, suspecting at the time that there was a problem caused by the gas injection, I returned off the gas at 9.5 hours and closed the top vent. The kiln was now “tight” but the bottom was much cooler than the top and the reduction, far from being increased was decreased. In fact the bottom shelf saw very little reduction as can be seen from the series of photos I took when I opened the kiln. The top shelf is first, and it can be seen that the cones are down as required. The teapot, glazed with Blue Avocado shows nice reduction and the other ware on the top shelf is somewhat reduced. The middle shelf is less satisfactory, but OK. However, the plates on the bottom shelf, intended to replace some of the dinner service that got smashed when a tray-load of pots overbalanced and fell on the floor, show no noticeable reduction, although it is just possible to see that they were double-dipped in conformity with the technique we are using for such glazing. It does at least illustrate the difference between ware that has been in a reducing atmosphere and ware that has not been, and was useful for the illustration provided earlier in this discussion.

>

Firing complete: top shelf

Firing complete: middle shelf

Firing complete: bottom shelf

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Page created 2013-06-19


Last modified: Mon Aug 19 13:27:48 PDT 2013